The two main causes leading to over population in India are:
- The birth rate is still higher than the mortality rate
- The fertility rate has been falling but even then it is much higher compared to other countries.
Fertility rate is generally expressed as the number of births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44 in a calendar year. However, according to Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 13 states out of the 22 bigger states of the country, which have successfully Achieved Control on Population Growth.
In 1999, The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in India was 3.2. In 2005, it has declined to 2.9. In 2017, it has further declined to 2.2. There are 13 States which have achieved the replacement level of fertility i.e. TFR of 2.1 as per Sample Registration System, 2017.
According to Sample Registration System (O/o RGI), 2017, The details of State/UTs which have achieved the Total Fertility Rate are as follows:
Delhi 1.5, Andhra Pradesh 1.6, Himachal Pradesh 1.6, Jammu & Kashmir 1.6, Punjab 1.6, Tamil Nadu 1.6, West Bengal 1.6, Karnataka 1.7, Kerala 1.7, Maharashtra 1.7, Telangana 1.7, Odisha 1.9 and Uttarakhand 1.9.